Public International law is regarding the organization and behavior of independent self-governing countries. It also includes the comparable existence of such entities such as the ‘Holy See’ and other intergovernmental organizations. Although the Holy See is different from the Vatican City State in that it does not fulfill the requirements of international law for statehood such as having a permanent population, an established form of government, recognized international borders and the capability of entering into agreements with other states. The reason that it is recognized under international law is that has diplomatic relations with 180 countries in the world and has the respect of these states which treat this entity as viable under international law.

To some extent ‘Public International Law’ is also applicable to multinational corporations and individuals who are subject to an international law whose scope is beyond the legal construal and applications of the law of individual states. Because of the rapid increase in global interactions for trade and other common interests, Public International Law is being more widely used and is becoming increasingly important arbitrate in matters of environmental deterioration and the implementation and observance of human rights. This has been facilitated with rapid increase in international modes of transportation and the progression and expansion of global communications

Public International Law envisages two separate branches of ‘the law of nations’ and international agreements and convention which are quite different, have different implications and should not be confused or mixed. Public International is very different from “private international law” which is applicable across a diverse range of legal authority between individuals which sometimes affects companies, corporations, and other legal entities. In essence “international law” is comprised of regulation and principles of general purpose and relevance which deals with the conduct of states and intergovernmental organizations and defines the boundaries of their relationships.

Public International Law also encompasses relationships of states with individuals whether such relationships are natural or judicial. In the same manner, a crime committed in one part of the world was not a cognizable offense if the party migrated to another country. The recognition of international law precedes the rights and obligations of states over citizens that are within its territorial borders and they can be extradited to the country which demands them or can carry out the trial in its own courts under its own legal system.  International Law also includes and governs treaties of extraditions between states wherein any state is under obligation to arrest and transport said criminal to the state where the crime was committed to face trial over his/her criminal activities